Chaire de recherche du Canada en ÉPI

Université Laval

Titulaire

Jean-Frédéric Morin est titulaire de la Chaire de recherche du Canada en économie politique internationale et professeur agrégé au Département de science politique de l’Université Laval. Il fut professeur de relations internationales à l’Université libre de Bruxelles de 2008 à 2014, et chercheur postdoctoral à l’Université McGill de 2006 à 2008. Au cours des dix dernières années, il a présenté ses travaux dans une quinzaine de pays, il a enseigné dans une dizaine d’universités, il a (co)supervisé huit doctorants, il a accompagné trois post-doctorants et il a travaillé avec une vingtaine de co-auteurs. Les travaux de Jean-Frédéric Morin ont été publié dans quelques-unes des meilleures revues de relations internationales, dont International Studies Quarterly, Review of International Studies, European Journal of International Relations, International Studies Review, International Interactions, Global Governance, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, et Review of International Political Economy.

Jean-Frédéric Morin est également Senior Fellow au Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Senior Research Fellow du Earth System Governance Project, et membre du Center for Intellectual Property Policy de l'Université McGill

Jean-Frédéric Morin est disponible pour diriger des thèses de doctorat en économie politique internationale et en politique internationale de l’environnement. Les projets qui portent sur la gouvernance internationale de la propriété intellectuelle, la protection de l'investissement étranger, les négociations commerciales, les interactions entre les institutions internationales, les programmes de renforcement de capacités ou les réseaux transnationaux d'experts sont particulièrement les bienvenus.


Chaire de recherche du Canada en économie politique internationale
Département de science politique
Pavillon Charles-De Koninck
1030, avenue des Sciences-Humaines, local 4445
Université Laval

Québec (Québec) G1V 0A6, Canada
Téléphone : +1 418-656-2131, poste 6173
Télécopieur : +1 418-656-7861
Courriel : jean-frederic.morin@pol.ulaval.ca

Intérêts de recherche

Économique politique internationale; accords commerciaux; politique internationale de l’environnement; renforcement des capacités; propriété intellectuelle; interactions institutionnelles; réseaux transnationaux; science et expertise; transferts de politiques; traités sur l'investissement; diversité biologique; acces aux médicaments, systemes complexes adaptatifs, complexes de régimes, 

Cours enseignés

GPL-2000 - Principes d’économie politique internationale
POL-7053 - Théories des relations internationales

Livres

  • Morin, J-F and J. Paquin, Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox, Palgrave, 2018.


    This book presents the evolution of the field of foreign policy analysis and explains the theories that have structured research in this area over the last 50 years. It provides the essentials of emerging theoretical trends, data and methodological pitfalls and major case-studies and is designed to be a key entry point for graduate students, upper-level undergraduates and scholars into the discipline. The volume features an eclectic panorama of different conceptual, theoretical and methodological approaches to foreign political analysis, focusing on different models of analysis such as two-level game analysis, bureaucratic politics, strategic culture, cybernetics, poliheuristic analysis, cognitive mapping, gender studies, groupthink and the systemic sources of foreign policy. The authors also clarify conceptual notions such as doctrines, ideologies and national interest, through the lenses of foreign policy analysis.


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  • Coman, R., A. Crespy, F. Louault, J-F Morin, J-B Pilet et Emilie, van Haute, Méthodes de la science politique: De la question de départ à l'analyse des données, de Boeck, 2016.


    Manuel mettant en évidence les méthodes et méthodologies propres à la science politique, avec des conseils pratiques pour mener à bien un travail de recherche.

    Une initiation à la recherche en science politique à travers : 
    - des conseils pratiques pour mener à bien un travail de recherche 
    - une présentation pédagogique des méthodes de collecte et d’analyse des données 
    - des exemples concrets extraits de la littérature récente 
    - des tableaux de synthèse, des mises en situation et des définitions des termes clés

    Pour apprendre à : 
    - élaborer une stratégie de recherche 
    - choisir et collecter les données pertinentes 
    - analyser et interpréter les résultats 
    - identifier les forces et les faiblesses de chaque méthode


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  • Morin, J-F et A. Orsini, Politique internationale de l'environnement, Presses de Sciences Po, 2015.


    Controverses scientifiques, sommets mondiaux, débats Nord/Sud, mouvements sociaux, équité intergénérationnelle, efficacité de la coopération, etc. La politique internationale de l'environnement constitue un domaine foisonnant qui ne cesse de s'enrichir depuis la fin du XXe siècle. Ce manuel permet de s’initier et de mieux comprendre les débats qui animent les spécialistes de la gouvernance internationale de l’environnement. Les changements climatiques sont-ils des facteurs de déclenchement de conflits armés ? La coopération multilatérale doit-elle être considérée comme un échec ? Les firmes transnationales peuvent-elles devenir les alliées des ONG ? La souveraineté nationale est-elle un obstacle à la coopération internationale dans le domaine de l’environnement ? Résolument pédagogique, il favorise la compréhension de concepts et de réalités complexes en proposant des tableaux, des cartes, des diagrammes, des repères chronologiques, des encadrés, un lexique et des liens vers des ressources spécialisées.


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  • Morin, J-F, Politique étrangère : concepts et méthodes, Armand Colin. 2012, 315 p.


    Pourquoi les pays occidentaux versent-ils davantage d’aide au développement aux autocraties qu’aux démocraties ? Pourquoi le Danemark réussit-il à exercer une influence disproportionnée au sein de l’Union européenne ? Pourquoi le Canada a-t-il fait du maintien de la paix la pierre angulaire de sa politique étrangère ? Ce manuel propose une introduction aux théories et aux méthodes de l’analyse de la politique étrangère. Il passe en revue les principales approches, des classiques aux plus récentes. Plus qu’une simple synthèse, il identifie les courants émergents, les lacunes qui doivent être comblées, les données qui peuvent être mobilisées, les pièges à éviter et les références bibliographiques à creuser. C’est le point d’entrée incontournable pour tous les étudiants, les doctorants et les chercheurs qui entament un projet de recherche sur la politique étrangère.


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  • Morin, J-F, Le bilateralisme américain: la nouvelle frontière du droit des brevets, Larcier, 2007, 577 p.


    À l’ère de l’économie du savoir, le contrôle sur les richesses immatérielles est devenu un enjeu central des relations internationales. Le droit international des brevets soulève les controverses et les passions. Alors que de vifs débats animent les négociations multilatérales de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce, les États-Unis court-circuitent ces antagonismes et recourent à la voie, plus discrète mais redoutablement efficace, du bilatéralisme. Bien que les traités bilatéraux américains soient encore méconnus, ils se multiplient à tout azimut et se répercutent sur les politiques nationales de développement économique, d’accès aux médicaments, de protection des savoirs autochtones, d’agriculture traditionnelle et de transferts technologiques. Jean-Frédéric Morin dresse un nouveau portait du droit international des brevets en analysant ce bilatéralisme en émergence. Cette étude détaillée arrive à point, à l’heure où de nombreux pays s’apprêtent à lancer à leur tour des négociations bilatérales avec les États-Unis


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Ouvrages dirigés

  • Coman, R. and J-F Morin (eds.), Political Science in Motion: The Evolution of a Discipline Through its Journals, Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 2015.


    This book examines recent developments in political science research. What are the new influences to which the discipline opens itself up? Is political science research converging towards a single model or splitting into different streams? What are the new challenges at the beginning of the 21st century? By addressing these questions, this collection of essays discusses three interrelated topics: the relationship between political science and the problems of politics, the relationship between political science and other fields of research, and the transformation of the profession. In so doing, this volume traces the major trends in contemporary political science research since the end of the Cold War.

     

    As part of this approach, the authors rely on the academic journals as a field of investigation. Each of the eight chapters focuses on a different journal, including the American Political Science Review,West European Politics, the British Political Science ReviewSecurity Dialogue, the Journal of Common Market StudiesInternational SecurityElectoral Studies and the Revue française de science politique.

     

    The book is intended to scholars with an interest in the historiography of political science, the epistemology of knowledge, the sociology of the profession as well as the evolution of the field in terms of research agendas, theoretical approaches and methodological debates. 


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  • Morin, JF, T. Novotna, F. Ponjaert and M. Telò (eds.), The Politics of Transatlantic Trade Negotiations, Routledge, 2015. 


    By focusing on the wider process of negotiations, this novel volume presents the first systematic analysis of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). The authors include scholars and practitioners from across disciplines and various academic institutions around Europe and North America, but also from outside of the transatlantic basin. While presenting a thorough examination of the process of TTIP negotiations, the volume is divided into four parts with each part examining a broader theme and offering three or four shorter exploratory chapters that are accessible to academics, students, policy-makers and a wider audience.

    The volume explores historical and theoretical aspects of TTIP (with chapters by Gamble, Keohane and Morse, Telò), the beginnings of the TTIP talks and the role of individual actors (Mayer, Novotná, Dür and Lechner, Strange), TTIP’s possible knock-on effects and consequences for third parties (Aggarwal and Evenett, Duchesne and Ouellet, Zhang, Ponjaert) as well as impact on multilateral institutions and regimes complexes (Mavroidis, Mortensen, Meunier and Morin, Pauwelyn).

    Endorsement:  

    "This volume addresses a crucial issue of global and interregional trade governance by including an international team of   leading scholars from a variety of disciplines and viewpoints. Collectively the authors identify the major stakes and provide a comprehensive and highly competent overview of the main political implications of the ‘Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership’ negotiations from both sides (North America and Europe), while keeping in mind the controversial interplay with global governance and emergent economies. Highly recommended for students, scholars, practitioners and informed citizens looking for critical and solid orientation in a very sensitive and uncertain matter."

    - Pascal Lamy, Honorary President of Notre Europe, former Director general of the WTO and European Commissioner for Trade 


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  • Carta, C. and J-F Morin (eds.), Making Sense of Diversity: EU’s Foreign Policy through the Lenses of Discourse Analysis, Ashgate, 2014, 272 p


    "Honouring both the plurality and fecundity that characterises discursive approaches, this book demonstrates the pertinence of focussing on discourses, in their many different hues, for understanding one of the most salient developments of the contemporary international system: the production, reproduction and transformation of Europe."  - Charlotte Epstein, University of Sydney

    ‘"With its unique collection of essays, this book celebrates two kinds of diversity: the highly diverse discursive environment that constitutes the EU's multifaceted identities, and the many academic approaches to analysing these multiple intersecting narratives." - Kalypso Nicolaïdis, University of Oxford

    ‘"his book represents an excellent contribution to the literature. First, it unpacks discourse analysis and demonstrates the diversity of the various discursive approaches. Second, it uses these discourse analytical lenses to shed new light on EU foreign policy" - Thomas Risse, Freie Universität Berlin

    "EU Foreign Policy through the Lens of Discourse Analysis is the most comprehensive collection to date covering the broad array of discourse analytic approaches to the study of international relations and foreign policy" - Roxanne Lynn Doty, Arizona State University


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  • Morin, J-F and A. Orsini (eds.), Essential Concepts of Global Environmental Governance, Routledge, 2014, 252 p.


    "This volume provides an essential glossary of critical terms and concepts in the field of international environmental politics for diplomats, analysts and students. The interdisciplinary array of expert authors provide terse and authoritative overview of the key concepts and debates that have defined the field of international environmental governance over the years. The entries carefully survey the intellectual ecosystem of the concepts applied to understanding and managing our global environmental crisis."

        –  Peter M. Haas, Professor of Political Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA

    "In a truly unique way, this book helps to connect the dots and navigate between the concepts, ideas and schools of thought in global environmental policy today. As environmental issues climb higher on the global agenda, I would highly recommend this book to all who wish to better understand the insights of sustainable global governance." 

         – Connie Hedegaard, European Union Commissioner for Climate Action

    "The global community is at a crossroads in respect to addressing climate change. A solid understanding of global environmental governance empowers people to better shape positive democracy that determines a safer future. This book makes a valuable contribution to societal understanding and societal change. Those who care about the world we leave to our children should take inspiration from its many and varied contributors drawn from so many disparate but interlocking disciplines."

         – Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


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Articles scientifiques

  • Morin, JF, A Dür, L. Lechner, 2018, "Mapping the Trade and Environment Nexus: Insights from a New Dataset", Global Environmental Politics, vol. 18(1). 


    Environment and trade are increasingly linked through preferential trade agreements. Despite the encompassing nature of environmental provisions in trade agreements, studies on causes and consequences of the trade and environment linkage are scarce. A main cause hindering research in this area is the lack of data. By dint of this research note we introduce an original dataset on environmental provisions found in 630 trade agreements signed between 1947 and 2016 – that is the most comprehensive in terms of both variables coded and agreements covered. We illustrate the dataset’s usefulness by assessing the question of why countries include environmental provisions in trade agreements. Are trade negotiations opportunities to promote stringent environmental standards? Or are environmental provisions window-dressing covering protectionist interests? We find evidence that democracies, countries that face import competition, and countries that care about the environment are more likely to include environmental provisions in trade agreements. The database is of particular relevance for research on international institutional design, policy innovation, regime complexity, policy diffusion, and regime effectiveness.


  • Meunier, S. and JF Morin, "The European Union and the Space-Time Continuum of Investment Agreements", Journal of European Integration, vol. 39(7): 891-907. 


    The 2009 Lisbon Treaty transferred the competence over Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy from the national to the supranational level. This article analyses the impact of this transfer on the content of international investment agreements and, more broadly, the shape of the investment regime complex. Is the competence shift expected to have an independent impact or simply reproduce and continue existing trends? Exploring these two conjectures through a combination of text analysis, primary materials, and interviews, we are making a Historical Institutionalist argument focusing on the timing and sequencing of international investment negotiations. While the competence shift has allowed the EU to innovate in developing its own approach to negotiating international investment agreements, notably with the proposal to create an Investment Court System, the novelty may be only at the surface as the constraints of past, current, and future negotiations restrict the options available to EU actors- we call this the space-time continuum. The result of this learning-and-reacting process is a new European approach which simultaneously duplicates and innovates and could eventually favour greater centralization within the investment regime complex.


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  • Morin, JF, O. Serrano, M. Burri, and S. Bannerman, "Rising Economies in the International Patent Regime: From Rule-Breakers to Rule-Changers and Rule-Makers", New Political Economy, tbp.


    Rising economies face a crucial dilemma when establishing their position on international patent law. Should they translate their increasing economic strength into political power to further developing countries’ interests in lower levels of international patent protection? Or, anticipating a rising domestic interest in stronger international patent protection, should they adopt a position that favors maximal patent protection? Drawing on multiple case studies using a most similar system design, we argue that rising economies, after having been coerced into adopting more stringent patent standards, tend to display ambivalent positions, trapped in bureaucratic politics and caught between conflicting domestic constituencies. We find that the recent proliferation of international institutions and the expansion of transnational networks have contributed to fragmentation and polarization in domestic patent politics. As a result, today’s emerging economies experience a more tortuous transformative process than did yesterday’s. This finding is of particular relevance for scholars studying rising powers, as well as for those working on policy diffusion, regulatory regimes, transnational networks and regime complexes.


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  • Morin, JF and M. Rochette, "Transatlantic Convergence of PTAs’ Environmental Clauses" Business and Politics, tbp


    The United States (US) and the European Union (EU) include several environmental clauses in their respective preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Building on an exhaustive and fine-grained dataset of PTAs environmental clauses, this article makes two contributions. First, it show that the US and the EU have initially favored different approaches to environmental protection in their PTAs. US concerns over regulatory sovereignty and level playing field have conducted to a legalistic and adversarial approach, while EU concerns for policy coherence have led to a more procedural and cooperative approach. Second, this article provides evidence that European and American trade negotiators have gradually converged on a shared set of environmental norms. Although the US and the EU initially pursued different objectives, they learned from each other and drew similar lessons. As a result, recent American agreements have become more European-like, and European agreements have become more Americanized. This article concludes that US and EU approaches, far from being incompatible, can usefully be combined and reinforce each other.


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  • Gold, R., J-F Morin and E. Shadeed, "Does Intellectual Property Lead to Economic Growth? Insights from an Improved IP Dataset" Regulation & Governance, tbp. 


    While policymakers often make bold claims on the positive impact of intellectual property (IP) rights on both developed and developing country economies, the empirical literature is more ambiguous. IP rights have both incentive and inhibitory effects that are difficult to isolate in the abstract and dependent on economic context. To unravel these contradictory effects, this article introduces an index that evaluates the strength of IP protection in 124 developing countries for the years 1995 to 2011. We illustrate the value of this index to economics study and show evidence that is consistent with IP leading to increased growth. Our results are further consistent with two causal pathways highlighted in the literature: that IP leads to greater levels of technology transfer and increased domestic inventive activity. Yet, other aspects of our study fit uneasily with this simple story. We find, for example, evidence suggesting that increased levels of growth lead to greater levels of IP protection, contradictory evidence in the literature linking IP with growth, a lack of evidence that increased levels of IP protection lead to actual use of the IP system and problems with what IP indexes measure. Because of this, we suggest another – and so far undertheorized – explanation of the links between IP and growth: that IP may have few direct effects on growth and that any causality is due to belief rather than actual deployment of IP.


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  • Morin, JF, J. Pauwelyn, and J. Hollway, "The Trade Regime as a Complex Adaptive System: Exploration and Exploitation of Environmental Norms in Trade Agreements", Journal of International Economic Law, vol. 20(2): 365-390.


    While the trade regime is often analyzed under the metaphoric assumptions of Newtonian mechanics, we propose an alternative, more organic representation. We argue that the trade regime seems to evolve as a complex adaptive system, at the edge of order and chaos. Drawing from a dataset of 280 different types of environmental provisions found in 680 trade agreements, we show how both the trade regime and the norms contained therein unfold by remaining stable (but not static) and dynamic (but not chaotic). Trade negotiators simultaneously explore new grounds by introducing legal innovations and exploiting known territories by adopting existing norms. Our analysis suggests that, even as the regime grows in the number and length of agreements, there are exploratory and exploitative processes at work. These twin processes can explain that the trade regime appears neither more fragmented/heterogeneous nor more centralized/homogenous than it was fifty years ago, despite its substantial expansion. This hypothesis is at the core of the research agenda that this paper lays out.


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  • Morin, JF and R. Gold, "International Socialization at the State and Individual Levels: Mixed Evidence from Intellectual Property", Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol 29(4): 1375-1395.


    This article synthesizes the results of two analyses, one at a macro and the second at the micro level, to shed new light on the process of international socialization. More particularly, the first analysis examines the seeming adoption of intellectual property norms at the state-level while the second looks at the internalization of similar norms at the individual decision-maker level. Both pay special attention to foreign education and capacity building courses as carriers of US norms to developing countries. By triangulating the results of these analyses, we gain a more precise picture of international socialization processes than analyses centered at only one level. It becomes possible to distinguish between socialization types (acculturation or persuasion) and idea types (causal or normative beliefs).


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  • Morin, JF, S. Louafi, A. Orsini and M. Oubenal, "Boundary Organizations in Regime Complexes: A Social Network Profil of IPBES", Journal of International Relations and Development, 20(3), 2017, 543-577 


    Regime complexes are arrays of institutions with partially overlapping mandates and memberships. As tensions frequently arise among these institutions, there is a growing interest geared to finding strategies to reduce them. Insights from regime theory, science and technology studies, and social network analysis support the claim that “boundary organizations” – a type of organization until now overlooked in International Relations – can reduce tensions within regime complexes by generating credible, legitimate and salient knowledge, provided that their internal networks balance multiple knowledge dimensions. Building on this argument, this article offers an ex ante assessment of the recently created International Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Results from our network analysis of IPBES point to clear improvements compared with similar organizations, although major deficiencies remain. The contribution of this article is threefold. Methodologically, it introduces new conceptual and technical tools to assess the “social representativeness” of international organizations. Theoretically, it supports the claim that international organizations are penetrated by transnational networks and, consequently, that the proliferation of institutions tends to reproduce structural imbalances. Normatively, it argues that a revision of nomination processes could improve the ability of boundary organizations to generate salient, credible and legitimate knowledge.


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  • Morin, JF and R. Gold, “An Integrated Model for Legal Transplantation : The Diffusion of Intellectual Property Law in Developing Countries”, International Studies Quarterly, vol. 58(4), 2014, p. 781-792.


    Why do some countries adopt exogenous rules into their domestic law when those lawsdo not align with the country’s specific interests? This article draws on the policydiffusion literature to identify four causal mechanisms that are hypothesized to give riseto those transplants in the case of asymmetric interests. While the literature presents thesemechanisms independently, this article argues that each works in combination with theothers to facilitate legal transplantation. The empirical demonstration is based on aquantitative analysis of legal transplants in the field of intellectual property (IP), andincorporates an original index of IP protection in 121 developing countries over 14 years. Our results suggest that, while one mechanism – coercion – is instrumental in initiatingthe transplantation process, it fades over time and is largely supplanted by three others:contractualization, socialization and regulatory competition acting in a mutuallysupportive manner. This article concludes with a plea for theoretical eclecticism,acknowledging multi-causality and context-conditionality. Any comprehensiveexplanation of legal transplantation must include the identification of mutualreinforcement between causal mechanisms, rather than simply ranking their relative contributions.

     

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  • Carta, C. and JF Morin, “Struggling over Meanings: Discourses on EU’s International Presence”, Cooperation and Conflict, vol. 49(3), 2014, p. 295-314.


    The first section of this introduction arranges the four theoretical approaches and methods presented in the special issues – namely interpretative constructivism, post-structuralism, discursive institutionalism (DI) and critical discourse analysis (CDA) – along two dimensions: a) the role of discourse in the constitution of the world, depending on whether approaches perceive social structure as being constitutive of or constituted by discourse; and b) interpretation of the weight of material and ideational elements in discourses. This model helps us make sense of the profound theoretical diversity that characterises analytical approaches to International Relations discourse. The second section tackles the question of ‘who does the speaking.’ It identifies the different voices that converge in the EU's international choir and problematises the discursive environment that forges international discourses through the theoretical lenses of selected approaches. In the last section, the contributions to this special issue are presented


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  • Morin, JF. “Paradigm Shift in the Global IP Regime: The Agency of Academics”, Review of International Political Economy, vol. 21(2), 2014, p. 275-309.


    The global intellectual property (IP) regime is in the midst of a paradigm shift in favor of greater access to protected work. Current explanations of this paradigm shift emphasize the agency of transnational advocacy networks, but ignore the role of academics. Scholars interested by global IP politics have failed to engage in reflexive thinking. Building on the results from a survey of 1,679 IP experts, this article argues that a community of academics successfully broke the policy monopoly of practitioners over IP expertise. They instilled some skepticism concerning the social and economic impacts of IP among their students as well as in the broader community of IP experts. They also provided expert knowledge that was widely amplified by NGOs and some intergovernmental organizations, acting as echo chambers to reach national decision makers. By making these claims, this article illustrates how epistemic communities actively collaborate with other transnational networks rather than competing with them, and how they can promote a paradigm change by generating rather than reducing uncertainty.


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  • Morin, JF. and C. Carta, "Overlapping and Evolving European Discourses on Market Liberalization", British Journal of Politics and International Relations, vol. 16(1), 2014 p. 117- 132.


    This introduction to the special section on European liberal discourses discusses three themescovered by all contributions: (i) the co-existence of several market liberal discourses in the European public sphere; (ii) interactions among these various discourses; (iii) and discursive changes resulting from these interactions.


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  • Morin, JF and A. Orsini, “Policy Coherency and Regime Complexes: the Case of Genetic Resources”, Review of International Studies, vol. 40(2), 2014, p.303-324.


    This study argues that ‘regime complexes’ and ‘policy coherence’ are two faces of thesame integrative process. The development of regime complexes co-evolves with the pressureson decision makers to coordinate their policies in various issue-areas. Conceptually, we intro-duce a typology of policy coherency (erratic, strategic, functionalistic, and systemic) accordingto its procedural and substantive components. Empirically, by triangulating quantitative andqualitative data, we use this typology for the case of the genetic resources’ regime complex toillustrate the links between regime complexes and policy coherency. Our results suggest that acoherent policymaking process favours integrated regime complexes, while greater exposure toa regime complex increases the pressure to have a coherent policymaking. This study fills a gapin the literature on regime complexes by providing a micro-macro model linking structure toagency.


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  • Orsini, A, JF Morin and O.R. Young, “Regime Complexes: A Buzz, A Boom or a Boost for Global Governance?” Global Governance, vol. 19, 2013, p. 27-39.


    Understanding the impact of regime complexes on global governance calls for creative policy thinking. This introduction provides a new and more precise definition of the concept of regime complex. It also suggests specific tools to characterize regime complexes and analyze their impacts on global governance. The articles in this issue deepen the analytical understanding of complexes by examining concrete examples in various domains of global governance such as piracy, taxation, energy, food security, emissions reduction, carbon sinks, biosafety, and refugee governance. In addition to providing an in-depth description of a variety of different regime complexes, this issue is innovative on three accounts: (1) it presents complexes as both barriers and opportunities for global governance and gives explanations for these diverse outcomes; (2) it shows how a broad spectrum of actors is necessary for understanding the creation and evolution of complexes; and (3) it qualifies former claims to the effect that only powerful actors can impact regime complexes. Keywords: regime complexes,networks, institutional centralization, institutional fragmentation, institutional density.


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  • Morin, JF and S. Oberthür, “The Scientist, the Diplomat and You”, International Studies Review, vol. 15(4), 2013, p. 577- 579.


    The study of GEG can contribute toward debunking a persistent – but rarely explicit – myth, sometimes called the “linear model”  or the “rational instrumental approach”. According to this myth, expert knowledge – that encompasses but is not limited to scientific knowledge – should precede politics. As such, GEG has significant theoretical and policy contributions to offer to other subfields of IR, such as international political economy. Constructivist scholarship so rarely claims policy-relevance that it would be unfortunate not to pay attention.


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  • Morin, JF and A. Orsini, “Insights from Global Environmental Governance”, International Studies Review, vol. 15(4), 2013, p. 562-566.


    This forum presents innovative concepts and nsights emanating from Global Environmental Governance (GEG) that could be enlightening for IR in general. It brings together scholars from various disciplines, based on three continents, with different theoretical and methodological orientation, but all active in the subfield of GEG. Together, they review recent conceptual innovations from GEG, hypothesize on the reasons why GEG  played a pioneer role for them, and assess their external validity for other IR subfields. They successively discuss (1) lawmaking techniques, (2) institutional interactions, (3) scaling and vertical linkages, (4 )private authority, (5) boundary organizations at the interface of science and politics, (6) openness and disclosure, (7) and regime effectiveness.


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  • Morin, JF and A.Orsini, “Insights from Global Environmental Governance”, International Studies Review, vol. 15(4), 2013, p. 562- 566.


    This forum presents innovative concepts and insights emanating from Global Environmental Governance (GEG) that could be enlightening for IR in general. It brings together scholars from various disciplines, based on three continents, with different theoretical and methodological orientation, but all active in the subfield of GEG. Together, they review recent conceptual innovations from GEG, hypothesize on the reasons why GEG played a pioneer role for them, and assess their external validity for other IR subfields. They successively discuss (1) law making techniques, (2) institutional interactions, (3) scaling and vertical linkages, (4 )private authority, (5) boundary organizations at the interface of science and politics, (6) openness and disclosure, (7) and regime effectiveness.


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  • Duchesne, E. and J-F Morin, 2013, “Revisiting Structural Variables of Trade Negotiations: The Case of the Canada EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement”, International Negotiation, vol. 18, p. 5-24


    This paper offers a conceptual analysis of the negotiation of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union. It argues that traditional accounts of the structure of trade negotiations must be tailored for their novel nature, especially their wider scope on various regulatory issues and the relative economic weight symmetry of trading partners. To build our argument, we revisit traditional structural factors such as economic interdependence, non-agreement alternatives (NAA), institutional constraints, outcome valuations, and domestic support. We conclude that current and future bilateral trade negotiations will likely last longer, deadlocks will likely become more frequent, and that variations in scope will likely increase.


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  • Morin, JF and A. Orsini, “Regime Complexity and Policy Coherency: Introducing a Coadjustments Model”, Global Governance, vol. 19, 2013, p. 41-51.


    This article looks at regime complexes from a state policymaking perspective. It develops a theoretical model in which regime complexes become denser over time while governmental policymaking becomes more coherent. Under this model, interactions between global regime complexes and national policymaking are twofold. On the one hand, greater policy coherence generates negotiated mandates asking for regime connections and complex density. On the other hand, regime-complex density creates more cohesive audiences, which increase incentives for national policy coherence. This coadjustments model brings states into the discussion of institutional interactions and critically questions the desirability and feasibility of recent calls for joined-up government and whole-of-government approaches. KEYWORDS: regime, complexity, policy coherency, substantive coherence, procedural coherence, political audience, life cycle.


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  • Gold, R. and J-F  Morin, “Promising  Trends in Access to  Medicines”, Global  Policy, vol. 3(2),  2012, p. 231-237.


    It is a vast understatement to say that the problem of access to medicines in developing countries is complex. Access is limited by a range of factors including inability to pay, a lack of infrastructure, and corruption in some countries. Surrounding and exacerbating these structural and technological problems is the layer of legal rights created by patents and their licensing that complicate and render more expensive the preparation and delivery of needed medicines, particularly those that need to be adapted to the social, health and cultural environment of developing countries. This article provides a survey of innovative strategies that aim at maximizing the potential of patents to facilitate the development and delivery of medicines against diseases, the burden of which falls principally on developing country populations. To understand the context in which these strategies are being proposed and implemented, the article reviews the battles over access to medicines beginning in the late 1980s. It then surveys some of the principal suggestions put forward to better direct innovation systems in addressing the critical health needs of the world’s majority including advance market commitments, patent buy-outs, prize funds, public–private partnerships and patent pools.


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  • Morin, JF, R. Gold  and K. Daley,  “Having Faith in IP:  Empirical Evidence  of IP Conversion”,  WIPO Journal, vol.  3(2), 2011, p. 93- 102.


    Why some developing countries adopt US-style IP rules that go beyond those required by the TRIPs agreement.? With this paper, we contribute to the disentanglement of this puzzling situation in two manners. First, we explore one often neglected reason for the adoption of US-style rules, i.e. the socialization of decision-makers in the adopting country through interaction with experts in US IP law. Second, we rely on a more systematic conceptualization and measurement of variables than has been adopted in many previous studies. Overall, we bring forward strong quantitative evidence that socialization is a significant force in the export and import of IP rules.


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  • Morin, JF, “The Life-Cycle of an Issue: Lessons from the Access to Medicines Controversy”, Global Society, vol. 25(2), 2011, p. 227- 247.


    Why and how do issues expire? This paper applies the concept of path dependency to issuelife cycle and argues that the manner in which an issue dies is closely associated with how it comes to life. This paper argues that, on the access to medicines issue, the first actors (1) to have called attention to a legal problem, (2) to have capitalised on the HIV/AIDs crisis, and (3) to have used the example of Africa, were also the first to have felt constrained by their own frame in their attempt to (1) look for economical rather than legal solutions, (2) expand the list of medicines covered beyond anti-AIDs drugs, and (3) allow large emerging economies to benefit from a scheme designed by countries without manufacturing capacities. In order to escape an issue in which they felt entrapped, issue entrepreneurs worked strategically to close the debate in order to better reframe it in other forums.


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  • Gold, R., T. Bubela and JF Morin, “Wicked Issues at the Intersection of Intellectual Property and Public Health”, McGill Journal of Law and Health vol. 4(2), 2011, p. 3-41.


    This article focuses on the intersection of health and one of the main drivers of the global economy, intellectual property. It is widely recognized that IP is an inter-sectoral issue with linkages to many other important public policy areas, such as health, agriculture, the environment, and education. In inter-sectoral issues such as IP, there is discussion on the need for governments around the world to achieve policy coherence not only across their various departments, but also between their domestic and international positions in important fora. To appreciate better the complexity of achieving policy coherence, this article first gives a multidisciplinary view of policy coherence and then provides the Canadian context for the debate. Next, it describes three examples at the border of public health and intellectual property in Canada and internationally: (1) health innovation and access to medicines in developing countries; (2) traditional knowledge (medicinal); and (3) pandemic influenza preparedness. Finally, the article discuses international experiences with a variety of mechanisms for achieving policy coherence in IP and health, including the practice of advisory groups, multi-stakeholder dialogue, inter-departmental coordination mechanisms, broad delegations for international meetings, and white papers. From this review, a few observations can be made. First, effective coordination requires two main factors: leadership and a permanent institution that can build trust. While inter-ministerial coordination is a widely used process for policy coherence, it is not always successful. Indeed, the lack of leadership in inter-ministerial coordination has strongly constrained policy coherence.


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  • Morin, JF, “The Two-Level Game of Transnational Network: The Case of Access to Medicines Campaign”, International Interactions, vol. 36(4), 2010, p. 309-334.


    The rapid emergence of transnational networks in world politics calls for an analysis of their power dynamics. By combining the advocacy network literature and the two-level game theory in an innovative manner, this paper provides a theoretical conceptualization of the interplay between intra- and inter-network interactions. It argues that the strength of networks as agent springs from their force as a structure. A network win-set is determined by its internal games, thereby affecting both its bargaining power and its chance to reach a consensual agreement with other networks. The issue of access to medicines is used as a factual background to illustrate how the flow of influence within networks affects influence among networks.


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  • Morin, JF and R. Gold, “Consensus-Seeking, Distrust, and Rhetorical Entrapment: The WTO Decision on Access to Medicines”, European Journal of International Relations, vol. 16(4), 2010, p. 563-587.


    While the WTO secretariat, key delegations, several NGOs, and industry publicly present the 30 August 2003 WTO Decision as an attempt to reconcile intellectual property with access to medicines, our research shows otherwise. We draw on qualitative analyses of 54 interviews and a lexicometric analysis of press releases to show that their enthusiastic public statements contrast deeply with their internal, cynical beliefs. Most of these actors not only consider the WTO Decision to be fundamentally flawed but claim to have known this prior to its adoption. We argue that a procedural norm of consensus-seeking impeded traditional bargaining over this sensitive issue and that distrust among participants hindered truthseeking deliberation. Caught between strategic and communicative actions, state and non state actors found themselves trapped in their own rhetoric of reconciling intellectual property with access to medicines. They realized that the appearance of a solution, rather than a functional solution, provided the only realistic outcome to a fruitless and publicly damaging continuation of debate. From a theoretical perspective, this case study sheds a new light on the gray zone between rational choice theory and constructivism, where both discourse and strategies matter. From an empirical perspective, it illustrates the risk of seeking consensus within international regimes when the procedural norm of consensus coexists with a high level of distrust.


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  • Bubela, T and JF Morin, “Lost in Translation: The Canadian Access to Medicines Regime From Transnational Activism to Domestic Implementation”, Health Law Journal, vol. 19, 2010, p. 113-157.


    Canada was the first country to implement the WTO Decision of August 30, 2003, authorizing the export of generic drugs manufactured under a compulsory license to developing countries in response to a proposal brought forward by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that now claim dissatisfaction with the Canadian legislation. This empirical case study examines what success means for an NGO campaign. It contrasts interviews, documents, media coverage, and public statements of stakeholders, using quantitative and qualitative analyses. It concludes the NGO network experienced a shift from a mobilizer of public sentiment at the international level to a policy adviser at the domestic level. This shift crystallized a change in leadership toward local, rather than transnational NGOs, and a shift in strategy from being radical to more reformist. While this process of institutionalizing the outcomes of international campaigns is necessary for the implementation of international norms into domestic policy, it required NGOs to compromise their ideal positions, producing some objective successes in legislative reform but subjective dissatisfaction of the NGOs in the failure of Canada’s domestic regime to enhance access to medicines on the ground in developing countries.


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  • Morin, JF, “Multilateralising TRIPs-Plus Agreements: Is the US Strategy a Failure?', World Journal of World Intellectual Property, vol. 12(3), 2009, p. 175-197.


    This paper examines the current wave of US bilateral agreements with respect to their strategic and political value at the plurilateral level. The US government has explicitly recognized its objective of leveraging bilateral agreements in order to influence regional and multilateral negotiations. Although it may be too early to assess the full effectiveness of this US strategy, the paper argues that there are clear signs that the exploitation of bilateral agreements will not independently achieve the goal of strengthening plurilateral patent norms. This finding is supported by an assessment of six potential roads from bilateralism to plurilateralism: chain reaction, pressure for inclusion, coalition building, emulation, legal interpretation, and adherence. The assertion that bilateral trade deals have a great impact on international patent lawmaking, made both by proponents and critics of TRIPs-Plus agreements, is unsubstantiated. The author concludes that the US Government Accountability Office and Congress are justified in questioning whether the negotiation of these bilateral agreements, at least in the realm of IP law, is a wise investment of US Trade Representative’s resources.


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  • Morin, JF, “The Strategic Use of Ethical Arguments in International Patent Lawmaking”, Asian Journal of WTO and International Health Law and Policy, vol. 3(2) 2008, p. 505-537.


    Due to scientific uncertainties and political problems, policymakers rely on socially constructed norms when drafting what they hope to be an efficient patent system. At the international level, ethical discourse is often used by stakeholders to promote their favoured norms and thus causing a “rhetorical war” in the international patent regime. This article introduces the evolution of key discourses in the history of the international patent regime, especially in regard to the biodiversity and the access to medicines debates. It leads to concluding remarks on the effectiveness of some discourses over others in framing international patent debates.


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  • Morin, J-F. and G. Gagné, "What Can Best Explain the Prevalence of Bilateralism in the Investment Regime", International Journal of Political Economy, vol. 36(1), 2007, p. 53-74.


    Most efforts to negotiate a multilateral agreement on the liberalization and protection of investment have failed despite the fact that there are more than 2,400 bilateral investment treaties in existence. We have coined this phenomenon the “lateralism paradox.” Within this article, we consider five hypotheses that focus respectively on power asymmetries, incentives for defection, strategic linkages, domestic constraints, and ongoing adaptation. We found that the first four explanations are not supported by empirical evidence from the post-NAFTA period. We conclude that bilateralism appears to be the only feasible approach for negotiating investment rules, as well as the most sensible process to ensure continuous and dynamic adaptation.


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  • Morin, J-F., "Tripping up TRIPs Debate: IP and Health ", International Journal of Intellectual Property Management, vol. 1, no1/2, 2006, p. 37-53.


    Access to medicine is at the forefront of multilateral debates surrounding the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs). This paper argues that bilateralism allows the United States to circumvent these debates and to set standards that serve and protect the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to the TRIPs requirements, recentlyconcluded US Free Trade Agreements (FTA) prescribe the patentability of new uses of known medicines, strengthen the protection of undisclosed data, extend the term of protection to compensate administrative procedures, prohibit some exceptions to the conferred rights, define circumstances for compulsory licensing, proscribe the doctrine of international exhaustion, and restrict the grounds for revocation. Although these “TRIPs-plus provisions” are not incompatible with the Doha Declaration on Public Health, they are additional barriers for the entry of generic medicines.


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  • Gagné, G. and Morin, J-F., "The Evolving American Policy on Investment Protection: Evidence from Recent FTAs and the 2004 Model BIT", Journal of International Economic Law, vol. 9(2), 2006, p. 357-382


    Twelve years after the inception of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the US policy on the protection of foreign investment is evolving. This article compares the provisions on investment in the recent US free trade agreements (FTAs) and the 2004 model bilateral investment treaty (BIT) with NAFTA’s. While most of the provisions are similar, some differences can be identified, both in substantive and procedural forms. We explain this evolution by a learning process of the US administration from the NAFTA experience. We argue that the new features of the FTAs and of the revised model BIT result from the US interest in reaching a better balance between the protection of investment and the protection of state sovereignty. This American concern stems from a reaction to the claims filed by foreign investors under NAFTA Chapter 11, at least some of which were perceived as ‘frivolous’ by the US government. However, the recent US FTAs and model BIT do not reveal a thorough policy reorientation but rather adjustments to the policy at the basis of NAFTA’s investment chapter.


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  • Morin, J-F., "Une réplique du Sud à l’extension du droit des brevets par les États-Unis ", Droit et société, vol. 58, 2004, p. 633-653.


    Le droit international de la propriété intellectuelle impose de plus en plus la brevetabilité du matériel génétique. Plusieurs organisations non gouvernemen-tales et pays en développement s’opposent à cette extension du droit des brevetsen réclamant de nouveaux droits de propriété sur les ressources génétiques etles connaissances traditionnelles. La dernière version du projet de Zone de li- bre-échange des Amériques reflète cette polarisation et contient, à côté des dis-positions sur la brevetabilité des végétaux, des propositions sur la protection dela diversité biologique. Cette opposition démontre que les pays latino-américains ont appris à jouer un rôle proactif dans le régime international des brevets et tentent d’orienter les débats vers leurs préoccupations.


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  • Morin, J-F., "La brevetabilité dans les récents traités de libre-échange américains", Revue internationale de droit économique, no 4, 2004,p. 483-501


    The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is no longer the «new frontier» of theinternational patent regime. Indeed, the United States and other developed countriesnegotiate bilateral «TRIPs-plus» treaties with developing countries. Arguably,bilateralism allows to bypass the dead-end debates at the TRIPs Council and to build alliances for upcoming multilateral negotiations at the World Intellectual PropertyOrganization. This article compares patentability provisions of the recently-concluded U.S. Free Trade Agreements with the TRIPs Agreement. Although most of the provisions of the TRIPs Agreement are integrated in bilateraltreaties, we identify five significant changes: 1) bilateral treaties provide a 12 months grace period to inventors; 2) the industrial application requirement isdefined has a «specific, substantial, and credible utility»; 3) a ceiling to thedisclosure requirement is introduced; 4) the plant protection regime is reinforced; 5) the non-discrimination rule is omitted.Our comparative analysis shows that bilateralism allows the US to consolidateexisting multilateral treaties, such as the TRIPs Agreement and the UPOV Conven-tion, and to fortify its negotiating position for future multilateral treaties, such as theWIPO Substantive Patent Law Treaty. The new features of bilateral treaties indicatethat the international patent regime is still oriented through the US patent law model.


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  • Morin, J-F., "Les accords de bioprospection répondent-ils aux objectifs de la Convention sur la biodiversité ", Revue de droit de l’Université de Sherbrooke, vol 34, no 1, 2003.


    La Convention sur la diversité biologique vise, entre autres, à favoriser le partage des avantages découlant de l’utilisation des ressources génétiques. L’application du principe de partage des avantages doit notamment contribuer à la conservation de la biodiversité. Toutefois, l’analyse de quelques contrats de bioprospection permet de croire que le partage des avantages, tel que mise en oeuvre jusqu’à présent, ne contribue généralement pas à l’atteinte de cet objectif. En effet, les avantages monétaires et technologiques qui sont partagés ne sont que rarement réinvestis dans la conservation de la biodiversité. Ils sont davantage utilisés pour le développement économique local, pour mousser les relations publiques des utilisateurs ou pour mieux intégrer les fournisseurs aux industries biotechnologiques. Afin d’améliorer la portée environnementale du partage des avantages, il faudrait influencer les modalités négociées entre les fournisseurs et les utilisateurs. Les Lignes Directrices de Bonn sur le partage des avantages représentent un premier pas en ce sens.


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  • Morin, J-F., "Le droit international des brevets : entre le multilatéralisme et le bilatéralisme américain", Études internationales, vol. 34(3), 2003, p. 537-562.


    Cet article présente 39 accords bilatéraux de propriété intellectuelle conclus entre les États-Unis et des pays importateurs de technologie. Ces accords permettent au gouvernement américain de contourner les négociations multilatérales de l’OMC. En utilisant une approche coercitive, le gouvernement américain est parvenu à tisser une toile d’accords bilatéraux qui va bien au-delà de l’Accord sur les ADPIC. D’abord, sur le plan géographique, plusieurs pays qui ont signé ces accords ne sont pas membres de l’OMC, ou alors ils profitent des périodes transitoires. Ensuite, sur le plan juridique, plusieurs normes prévues dans ces accords sont plus élevées que celles de l’Accord sur les ADPIC, particulièrement en ce qui concerne la brevetabilité des inventions. Par conséquent, les gains que peuvent faire les pays importateurs de technologie, lors du présent cycle de négociation à l’OMC, doivent être relativisés par un analyse des accords bilatéraux. 


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