Je suis détentrice d'une maîtrise en Sciences Politiques (spécialisation Globalisation et Gouvernance) obtenue à Sciences Po Lyon (France) en avril 2014.
J'ai travaillé pendant deux ans comme coordinatrice de projets environnementaux dans l'organisation non-gouvernementale PIDES, qui s'intéresse de façon générale aux problématiques urbaines et à l'innovation sociale.
Je suis actuellement candidate au doctorat en Science Politique à l'Université Laval (Québec, Canada). Mon projet de thèse porte sur l'étude du changement dans les systèmes complexes et prend pour cas d'étude les réseaux municipaux transnationaux dans la gouvernance climatique mondiale.
Je travaille comme chargée de cours pour le cours Politiques Environnementales et comme auxiliaire d'enseignement pour le cours Fondements du Développement Durable, tous deux offerts par le Département de Science Politique aux étudiants de premier cycle.
J'ai par ailleurs eu un contrat d'auxiliaire de recherche dans le cadre d'un projet d'ouvrage sur le transport urbain durable piloté par le professeur Jean Mercier. J'ai aussi travaillé avec Geneviève Cloutier, professeure en Etudes urbaines, sur un projet de recherche portant sur les expérimentations locales d'adaptation aux changements climatiques.
En 2016, j'ai reçu deux bourses d'excellence de la part de la Faculté des Sciences Sociales de l'Université Laval, dans le but de participer à différentes formations méthodologiques internationales.
En 2017, j'ai reçu la bourse d'excellence pour étudiants au doctorat attribuée par l'Institut Hydro-Québec en Environnement, Développement et Société. J'ai également reçu la bourse d'excellence au doctorat du Fonds facultaire d'enseignement et de recherche attribuée par la Faculté des Sciences Sociales de l'Université Laval.
En 2018, j'ai obtenu la bourse de voyage du fonds Jean-Pierre Derriennic et la bourse d'excellence en recherche du Département de Science Politique. J'ai également reçu la bourse de formation au doctorat offerte par le Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Société et Culture pour une durée de deux ans.
Intérêts de recherche
Politique Internationale de l'Environnement
Réseaux transnationaux de villes
Gouvernance climatique urbaine
Analyse de réseaux sociaux
Auxiliaire d'Enseignement pour le Cours DDU-1000 Fondements du Développement Durable
Auxiliaire d'Enseignement pour le Cours POL-1003 Régimes Politiques
Chargée de cours pour le Cours POL-2207 Politiques Environnementales
Projet de recherche en cours
"Discussing the Power of the Network in a Complex System: An Analysis of the Innovation Property of Transnational Municipal Networks in Global Climate Governance"
Dans ce projet de thèse, je m'intéresse aux interactions des réseaux municipaux transnationaux et leur influence sur l'émergence d'innovations dans la gouvernance climatique mondiale. Je regarde plus particulièrement les innovations dans les instruments de gouvernance utilisés par les réseaux municipaux transnationaux.
Papin, M. 2019. Transnational municipal networks: Harbingers of innovation for global adaptation governance? International Environmental Agreements 19(4-5): 467-483.
Few studies have examined transnational actors involved in global adaptation governance, despite their growing influence. This paper focuses on 100 Resilient Cities (100RC), a transnational municipal network (TMN) that has created governance instruments with potential for contributing to global adaptation governance. Despite their different nature from international actors (states and intergovernmental organizations), the distinct practices of TMNs and how they might influence global adaptation governance are uncertain. Vague claims suggest that TMNs are innovative, but what this innovation consists of remains unclear. Therefore, the research question here is: how do TMNs innovate in global adaptation governance? This paper strives to answer this question, by building an analytical framework to identify types and features of governance instruments, based on the literature on policy instruments, global environmental governance and global climate governance. It presents a case study of 100RC, based on an in-depth documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews. The results suggest that TMNs can be innovative, if they, like 100RC, create original governance instruments instead of using the existing tools of international or other transnational actors. While some of 100RC’s tools favour a more recent, soft and indirect approach, its considerable use of hard practices with significant obligation is particularly interesting considering the general characterization of TMNs as voluntary and soft. The governance practices of 100RC are thus not in stark contrast with those of international actors. Their diversity could provide inspiration for future action to improve the effectiveness of global climate adaptation governance, and the analytical framework developed here could be applied in further studies.
Cloutier, G., M. Papin et C. Bizier, "Do-it-yourself (DIY) adaptation: Civic initiatives as drivers to address climate change at the urban scale", Cities, publié en ligne le 4 janvier 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2017.12.018
Greening projects lead by civic actors at the urban scale spur transformation through example and through gradual adjustment of processes. Questions remain on how such projects are put into action and on what make them work. How do civic experiments reflect the ongoing change in urban governance and practices? We focus on a qualitative study of two greening initiatives lead by civic groups in Quebec City (Quebec, Canada). The case studies are analysed through the lens of theories that approach civic action and climate experiments as new modes of urban governance. We conclude that civil society groups have the capacity to intervene directly on the urban environment in order to enhance its quality. Findings reveal that informal greening initiatives contribute to a civic narrative in favour of adaptation to climate change at the local scale.
Papin, M., 2017, "Global Cities and Climate Change: The Translocal Relations of Environmental Governance, by Lee Taedong Routledge, 2015, 160 pp, £95 hb, ISBN 9780415737371 An Urban Politics of Climate Change: Experimentation and the Governing of Socio-Technical Transitions, by Bulkeley Harriet A. , Castán Broto Vanesa & Edwards Gareth A.S. Routledge, 2015, 270 pp, £90 hb, ISBN 9781138791091 The Urban Climate Challenge: Rethinking the Role of Cities in the Global Climate Regime, by Johnson Craig , Toly Noah & Schroeder Heike (eds) Routledge, 2015, 258 pp, £100 hb, ISBN 9781138776883", Transnational Environmental Law, 6:1, 184-187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S2047102517000048
Cette recension croisée porte sur trois ouvrages publiés en 2015 sur la question des villes et de l'action climatique. Il met en avant le nouveau rôle des villes, tant au niveau local que transnational ou mondial, dans la lutte aux changements climatiques et évoque les perspectives pour le droit transnational de l'environnement.
Communications avec arbitrage
Papin-Manjarrez, M., 2018, “Following the mean won’t do any good: for a complex systems approach to global climate governance”, November 7, Utrecht Conference on Earth System Governance, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
Complexity is a twenty-first century concept that is both popular and controversial. It has gradually become a buzzword in global governance studies. The increase in the number of populations of organisations and in the total number of actors participating in global politics has indeed led scholars to talk about a complexifying global governance system. This is particularly true in earth system governance studies, where the multiplication of non-state actors has triggered a variety of works focusing on their interdependence and impact on global environmental governance. However, complexity does not necessarily grow with the rise of interconnected elements in the system. Moreover, many seem to confuse complexity with complicatedness. Using a complexity framework would resolve these issues. However, many scholars are still reluctant to do so. How may complexity approaches help us improve our understanding of global climate governance?
This paper advocates for the application of complex systems approaches in the analysis of global climate governance. Several scholars have started to use them in related questions, whether in a general manner, or to conceptualize more specific questions like environmental governance, experimental climate governance, or transnational climate governance. However, there have been few studies of the complex system of global climate governance. It is argued here that these are both relevant and useful.
First, regarding the relevance, global climate governance has a multiplicity of interacting and interdependent elements. It is also nonlinear and hierarchical, because of its numerous levels going from the global to the micro creating the possibility of feedback and strange loops. Finally, it is open: its borders are porous and allow for interactions with actors coming from other systems. All of this makes the system unpredictable and complex.
Second, regarding the usefulness, this perspective could bring new insights on the understanding of global climate governance. More specifically, by acknowledging the nonlinearity and unpredictability of the system, we could accept the uncertainty of the world we live in and of our own findings. This could help us diverge from traditional but often failing goals such as prediction, and redefine our research strategies to make them more effective.
Overall, this paper seeks to offer a different way of observing global climate governance. It thus hopes to foster novel ideas and theories on the ways to analyse and understand governance complex systems and contribute to the broader field of earth system governance.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., 2018, “Both Structures and Actors: The Elaborated Strategy of Transnational Municipal Networks to Influence Global Climate Governance”, November 6, Utrecht Conference on Earth System Governance, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
In this essay, I advocate for the use of an integrated approach to study networks as both structures and actors. The study of networks has gained a lot of interest in global environmental governance studies and related fields. Witnessing transnational processes that might influence world politics, scholars have looked at a variety of phenomena, among which epistemic communities, transnational advocacy networks or public-private partnerships (Bouteligier 2013, Andonova et al. 2009, Keck and Sikkink 1998, Haas 1992, 1990). Recently, they have also applied the network lens to global environmental governance. However, there is still room for investigation. Indeed, scholars of global environmental governance have often thought of networks as structures (e.g. Bansard et al. 2016, Giest and Howlett 2013) or as actors (Hakelberg 2014, Andonova et al. 2009). Few studies have analysed them as both. How can an integrated perspective of networks as structures and actors improve our understanding of the influence of networks in earth system governance?
To answer this question, the example of Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) engaged in climate action proves interesting. As structures, TMNs influence the behaviour of their city members, guiding them toward climate action and resilience. Some cities find themselves in better positions than others in the network and become more powerful. As actors, TMNs develop strategies to gain weight in the system of global climate governance. I elaborate on the case of 100 Resilient Cities (100RC), a TMN founded in 2013 by The Rockefeller Foundation to work on urban resilience. In five years, 100RC has managed to become a prominent actor of the system. Inside its network of cities, it has oriented the behaviour of its members towards the design and implementation of resilience projects and the use of specific governance tools. Outside of it, it has partnered with major TMNs and non-TMN actors and become part of global initiatives dealing with climate action. To understand its rise, we must consider both the capacity of 100RC to connect to specific external actors and its internal structure of cities.
This essay thus joins the social sciences agent-structure debate by focusing on the integrated perspective of networks. Furthermore, it seeks to bring new insights on TMNs, a rather recent phenomenon whose influence we are still trying to measure. Finally, as it focuses on one entity of global climate governance, it hopes to offer an innovative contribution to questions dealing with agency and architectures of earth system governance.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., 2018, “Understanding change in a complex system: The innovation property of Transnational Municipal Networks”, April 5, International Studies Association Annual Convention, San Francisco, United States.
Despite the global call for action, international actors have seemed unable to provide effective solutions to the ‘wicked problem’ of climate change. Overall, the global climate
governance system initiated at the end of the 1980s has hardly evolved and is often described as locked. Recently, however, distinct actors have started to offer new answers to the governing of climate. Among them, Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) claim that ‘while nations talk, cities act’ and promote the role of local actors at the global level. Although their direct effect on mitigation has been questioned, I argue that TMNs may have an indirect effect on the system through the creation of governance tools of new generation. This paper thus tackles the general question of how a system may change.
In that sense, I use a theoretical framework based on complexity approaches and network theory that gives an understanding of the emergence and diffusion of innovation. I
then conduct a case study of 100 Resilient Cities, a recent TMN that has rapidly become a central actor within the network of TMNs. Finally, I present some prospects of the emergence of these actors that lack legal authority and financial resources in global climate governance.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., 2018, “Structures and actors: the elaborated strategy of Transnational Municipal Networks to influence global climate governance”, April 4, International Studies Association Annual Convention, San Francisco, United States.
Over the last decades, the interest in networks in International Relations has dramatically increased. Witnessing a variety of transnational processes in world politics, scholars have studied epistemic communities, transnational advocacy networks or intergovernmental policy networks, among others. Recently, they have also applied the network lens to global climate governance, looking at different entities as structures or as actors. However, few studies have analysed them as both. This paper argues that networks can be seen simultaneously as constraining structures and purposeful and influential agents. In that sense, the case of Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) engaged in climate action proves interesting. As structures, TMNs successfully connect cities together and with other actors in complex arrangements where power logics are at play. As actors, they also develop strategies to reach and influence distinct international and transnational actors. The example of 100 Resilient Cities shows these processes result from well-thought strategies aimed at influencing global climate governance. It also underlines how the network as a whole affects its members which in turn shape it through their decisions and actions. Entering the agent-structure debate in an innovative way, this paper overall seeks to engage in a fruitful reflection on networks in IR.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., 2017, “Going beyond the buzzword to make the most of institutional complexity”, 30 novembre, Centre for Global Cooperation Research, Duisburg.
A variety of studies on global governance, whether they are built on theories of multilevel governance, regime complexes or organisational ecology, increasingly refer to the phrase “institutional complexity”. Doing so, they usually recognise the increasing number of institutions in global governance, their diversity and their interdependence. Overall, they seek to make sense of a system which is harder and harder to explain and predict. However, most of the time, the term complexity is used as a buzzword that lacks fundamental principles lying behind the concept as applied in several theoretical approaches. Complex issues are just seen as complicated ones. In these cases, talking about institutional complexity does not add to the study of global governance. However, it could and thus should. How can “institutional complexity” contribute to our
understanding and eventually to our practice of global governance?
This think-piece argues that we need to go beyond the phrase and go back to theory to make the most of “institutional complexity”. Integrating principles from the literature on complex systems, we can build a powerful analytical concept. To this end, this work proposes a preliminary three-level definition of institutional complexity based on complex systems thinking. More specifically, it builds on features of the complex system such as interconnectedness of its elements, nonlinearity and feedback loops, and openness. In what regards its properties, self-organisation, adaptability and unpredictability, are also considered. This leads to a structuring of the concept around a basic, a secondary and an indicator levels. A discussion of this effort then follows. Its main goal is to underscore the potential of the concept of institutional complexity for making several contributions to the study of global governance. On the theoretical side, this preliminary definition may encourage the elaboration of more structured theories of change in the current global governance system. Epistemologically, it could help us move away from our prediction goals and embrace uncertainty by focusing on the construction of plausible scenarios. These may later facilitate our policy interventions. Finally, regarding methodology, an analytical definition of institutional complexity may facilitate our using appropriate methods that most particularly focus on causal complexity and interconnections. This work is only a preliminary reflection but it hopes to foster new ideas on the way to analyse and understand institutional complexity.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., 2017, “The innovation property of Transnational Municipal Networks: prospects for the complex system of global climate governance”, 10 octobre, Lund University, Lund.
This paper analyses the innovation property of Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) to understand how it may affect global climate governance and to question the prospects for the allocation and access to climate governance benefits and burdens.Global climate governance has traditionally been led by the most powerful actors of the system, i.e. Western industrialized states and intergovernmental organisations that have set the norms ruling the governing of climate. However, as COP21 underlined, other actors are now participating in these issues, such as cities, often represented by TMNs. The rise of TMNs, alliances cities join voluntarily to exchange on a variety of urban issues, learn and implement best practices, and be represented globally, has triggered the interest of scholars. Some have shown that TMNs enable cities to act as technical and normative leaders on the global climate scene. Others have emphasized their role in promoting and encouraging local climate action and providing cities with informational, financial and political resources. Finally, studies have underscored their ability to produce innovation in climate governance, fostering a reflection on who governs and how. As they combine institutional and market-based elements to elaborate actions, TMNs are also said to generate a new system of governance from the middle.However, innovation and its effects still need to be clearly defined and traced. Acknowledging this innovation property, we must precise what it is that TMNs do differently
from states. Is it their climate action, their practice of governance or the set of norms they diffuse that is innovative? And how does it rise and diffuse in climate governance? To start answering these questions, I use a theoretical framework based on complexity thinking as it brings interesting inputs to explain the emergence and diffusion of innovation. Through a case study and network analysis of 100 Resilient Cities focusing on the instruments it uses and the interactions it has with its member cities and its partners, I observe how innovation rises from the TMN and how it may possibly diffuse in the complex system of global climate governance. This type of empirical study, which analyses the interactions of TMNs, has, to my knowledge, rarely been done, which makes this paper an interesting contribution to studies on TMNs. On a more general level, this work may help us understand if TMNs, as new actors of global climate governance with the potential to affect its current functioning, may be able to reallocate its benefits and burdens.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., "The Rise of Transnational Municipal Networks, a Promise of Innovation for Adaptation Governance?", May 23, 2017, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
Transnational adaptation governance has greatly evolved recently, but studies on this issueremain scarce. In this paper, I focus on one factor of its increasing complexity, the rise of newand diverse actors. More specifically, I discuss the innovation role of transnational municipalnetworks (TMNs), alliances of cities that seek to develop their climate action, and reflect onits effects on global adaptation governance.TMNs are an interesting object of analysis for various reasons. First, few TMNs workexclusively on adaptation and consequently, there have been few studies on that matter.However, TMNs do indirectly tackle adaptation and see it as a concern that goes beyondclimate and embraces a broader global change. Furthermore, they depart from internationalactors by connecting local actors to public, private, local and transnational partners; theirinfluence on climate governance should therefore be studied. Finally, TMNs are seen asinnovative, although this lacks precision. If they indeed produce innovation, what do they dothat is different and novel and what is their effect on global adaptation governance?In order to start answering this question, I elaborate a theoretical framework based oncomplexity theory and the study of policy instruments that helps understand the emergence ofinnovation and its effects. I then draw a case study of 100 Resilient Cities and find that thegovernance tools it uses, partly because of their focus on nodality and organization, areindeed innovative. The TMN’s numerous and diverse partnerships may furthermore enablethe diffusion of these tools in the global adaptation governance system. Overall, this paperseeks to better understand the role of TMNs as we are witnessing their growing influence andreflect on the possible outcomes in global adaptation governance regarding its strengtheningand development.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., "Understanding innovation in a change-averse system: The rise of Transnational Municipal Networks in Global Climate Governance", May 17, 2017, Heidelberg, Germany.
In this paper, I analyse the rise and impact of Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) inthe evolving global climate governance through the study of 100 Resilient Cities (100RC).The contrasting outcomes of COP15 and COP21 have revealed a shift from a top-down to amore bottom-up approach in global climate governance. Accordingly, cities are becomingmore influential, which is mainly linked to their membership in TMNs, alliances they createto develop and promote their climate action. In a change-averse system, how have TMNsbecome influential actors of global climate governance, taking cities with them? In this paper,I argue that TMNs have gained influence through their networking strategy and the creationof innovative governance instruments.Using network theory and policy instrument studies, I draw a novel in-depth study of 100RC,a prominent TMN gathering 100 city members, and generate a robust preliminary answer.The TMN’s explicit goal of becoming influential beyond the limits of its network of citiesand its numerous connections to a wide variety of actors make it a stimulating case forresearch. I thus observe the strategy used by the TMN to develop and gain influence,focusing on its interactions with other TMNs and distinct actors and on the innovativeinstruments it uses to steer its members. Finally, I offer some hypotheses on the role of TMNsin global climate governance.This paper contributes to the literature on global climate governance by studying a specificelement of the broad category of non-state actors to understand how it has taken part in thecurrent shift towards a new governing of climate change. By focusing on its innovation role,it fits INOGOV aims and goals.
Conférences, séminaires et ateliers
Papin-Manjarrez, M., 2018, La place des villes dans la gouvernance climatique mondiale, Table Ronde intitulée "COP23: Regards croisés sur les négociations climatiques", 8 février, Université Laval, Québec.
Lors de cette table ronde intitulée "COP23: Regards Croisés sur les négociations climatiques2 organisée par l'Institut Hydro-Québec en Environnement, Développement et Société, j'ai évoqué le rôle des villes dans la gouvernance climatique mondiale. Plus spécifiquement, j'ai évoqué la présence et les objectifs des réseaux municipaux transnationaux aux Conférences des Parties organisées par la Convention-Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques. J'ai aussi mis en avant le rôle des autres acteurs non-étatiques lors de ces négociations et le déroulement de ces dernières dans ses espaces officiels et non-officiels.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., "The innovative instruments of transnational municipal networks in the complex system of climate governance", May 19, 2017, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
In this working paper, I analyse Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) as elements of the complex system of climate governance and assess their potential for innovation through the study of their governance instruments. Over the recent period, climate governance has experienced the rise of sub-state and non-state actors. Among them, TMNs, alliances cities create and or integrate to develop their climate action and be represented at the global scale, have received a lot of attention. Scholars have underlined their role in promoting local climate action and providing cities with cognitive, financial and political resources. They have also claimed their ability to bring innovation to climate governance by questioning who governs and how. Others imply that by combining institutional and market-based elements to elaborate and implement their actions, they generate a new system of governance from the middle. However, these efforts to examine the innovation role of TMNs need to be strengthened, considering the increasing complexity of the environment. More specifically, we must understand what TMNs do differently and how they may manage to change practices in the complex system of climate governance. To this end, this paper focuses on the governance instruments used by TMNs to steer their members towards climate action. Whereas states and intergovernmental organizations usually recur to regulatory and economic instruments, displaying a traditional vision of authority, TMNs seem to favour instruments based on nodal and organizational resources. In that sense, their steering would be softer and more indirect. The prospects of this innovation are then discussed to understand whether it might represent an effective alternative to the current managing of climate issues. Envisioning climate governance itself as a complex system, this paper analyses how change may emerge and diffuse in nonlinear ways to challenge dominant modes of governing. It will thus represent an interesting contribution to the discussion of the diverse strategies for effective environmental governance.
Papin-Manjarrez, M., "The Rise of Transnational Municipal Networks, a Promise of Innovation for Global Climate Governance?", Open Universiteit, Heerlen, March 31, 2017.
In this paper, I discuss the innovation role of Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) inclimate governance through the study of 100 Resilient Cities, a TMN focusing on adaptationand resilience issues.Over the recent period, climate governance has experienced the rise of sub-state and non-stateactors. Among them, TMNs, alliances of cities created voluntarily by them to develop theirclimate action and be represented at the global scale, have received a lot of attention.Scholars have underlined their role in promoting and encouraging local climate action andproviding cities with cognitive, financial and political resources. They have also claimed theirability to bring innovation to climate governance as their influence brings along thequestioning of who governs and how, as well as the rethinking of the distinction between thenational and the international. Furthermore, by combining both institutional and market-basedelements to elaborate and implement actions, they generate a new system of governance fromthe middle.However, a lack of precision remains regarding the concept of innovation in global climategovernance and its application to TMNs. Sometimes seen as diffusion or as experimentation,its use demands further theorizing. If TMNs are indeed innovative, what do they do that isdifferent and how? This study seeks to clarify the definition of innovation as well as assessthe innovative role of TMNs and hypothesize the prospects for global climate governance. Todo so, I draw a case study of 100 Resilient Cities, a TMN that seems to be developing novelpractices to promote climate adaptation and resilience. Using complexity thinking andnetwork theory, I will examine its governance instruments and assess their innovative value.By observing the interactions of the TMN with other actors, I will propose an explanation forthe way innovation emerges from this TMN. My hypothesis is that the diversity and highnumber of partners of the TMN are significant in its developing innovative governanceinstruments promoting adaptation and resilience. I will then draw some conclusions regardingglobal climate governance.This paper fits with the goals of the INOGOV Spring School as it studies an emerging actorof transnational climate governance and focuses on its innovative potential. It will thusrepresent an interesting contribution to discussions on both theoretical and practical aspectsof climate governance.
Documents de vulgarisation
Papin-Manjarrez, M., et G. Cloutier, "L’expérimentation locale, nouvelle voie de l’adaptation en milieu urbain ?", Urbanité, Hiver 2018, 11-12.
Du fait de la difficulté à mettre en place des initiatives ordinaires d’adaptation aux changements climatiques en milieu urbain, nombreux sont les citoyens et organismes qui préfèrent sortir des sentiers battus pour expérimenter de nouvelles façons d’agir directement sur le territoire. Opérations de verdissement, compostage collectif, agriculture urbaine sont quelques déclinaisons de ces expérimentations locales d’adaptation du milieu. Quels sont les effets de telles expérimentations ? Comment les microactions contribuent-elles à l’adaptation aux changements climatiques plus largement ?
Interventions dans les médias
N. Kinnard, "En route vers la COP24", Le Fil, 53(19), en ligne, consulté le 8 mars 2018. URL: https://www.lefil.ulaval.ca/route-vers-cop24/.
Après la table ronde organisée par l'Institut EDS et intitulée "COP23: Regards croisés sur les négociations climatiques", la journaliste revient sur les différents messages portés par les experts présents lors de cet événement. Elle reprend aussi les propos de Marielle Papin, interviewée à cette occasion, qui met en avant le rôle des villes et des acteurs non-étatiques au sein de ces négociations stato-centrées.